Volume 10, Issue 4 (2022)                   Health Educ Health Promot 2022, 10(4): 827-833 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rahimi T, Faryabi R. Factors Predicting Prostate Cancer Screening Behavior in Iranian Men Based on the Protection Motivation Theory. Health Educ Health Promot 2022; 10 (4) :827-833
URL: http://hehp.modares.ac.ir/article-5-64056-en.html
1- Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
2- Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran
Abstract:   (659 Views)
Aims: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men and is one of the major causes of pain and cost in the health care system. Prostate cancer screening is a low-cost and easy way to detect cancer early. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with prostate cancer screening in men over 50 years in Jiroft using the Protection Motivation Theory.
Instruments & Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study that was performed on 414 men over 50 years old. The sampling method was multi-stage. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire of 58 questions whose validity and reliability was measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression.
Findings: 53.9% of the participants were in the age group of 60-69 years. Only 8.2% had an annual prostate cancer screening. Perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, self-efficacy, response efficiency, and fear had a significant positive relationship, and response cost and perceived reward had a significant inverse relationship with prostate cancer screening behavior (p<0.05). Perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, self-efficacy, fear, and protection motivation constructs could explain 37% of the variance of prostate cancer screening behavior (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The constructs of perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, self-efficacy, fear, and protection motivation can explain 37% of prostate cancer screening behavior in Iranian Men, and protection motivation is a stronger predictor.
Full-Text [PDF 1374 kb]   (848 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (140 Views)  
Article Type: Descriptive & Survey | Subject: Health Education and Health Behavior
Received: 2022/09/7 | Accepted: 2022/11/13 | Published: 2022/11/30
* Corresponding Author Address: Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Soleymani Street, Jiroft, Iran. Postal Code: 7861756447 (rfphdjmu@gmail.com)

1. Rawla P. Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer. World J Oncol. 2019;10(2):63-89. [Link] [DOI:10.14740/wjon1191]
2. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: Globocan estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(3):209-49 [Link] [DOI:10.3322/caac.21660]
3. Pakzad R, Rafiemanesh H, Ghoncheh M, Sarmad A, Salehiniya H, Hosseini S, et al. Prostate cancer in Iran: Trends in incidence and morphological and epidemiological characteristics. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(2):839-43. [Link] [DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.839]
4. Catalona WJ, Loeb S. Prostate cancer screening and determining the appropriate prostate-specific antigen cutoff values. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2010;8(2):265-70. [Link] [DOI:10.6004/jnccn.2010.0017]
5. Leitzmann MF, Rohrmann S. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates. Clin Epidemiol. 2012;4:1-11. [Link] [DOI:10.2147/CLEP.S16747]
6. Tabari F, Zakeri Moghadam M, Bahrani N, Monjamed Z. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in newly recognized cancer patients. Hayat. 2007; 13(2): 5-12. [Persian] [Link]
7. Center MM, Jemal A, Lortet-Tieulent J, Ward E, Ferlay J, Brawley O, et al. International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur Urol. 2012;61(6):1079-92. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.02.054]
8. Hankey BF, Feuer EJ, Clegg LX, Hayes RB, Legler JM, Prorok PC, et al. Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in prostate cancer-part I: Evidence of the effects of screening in recent prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(12):1017-24. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/jnci/91.12.1017]
9. Meyerowitz BE, Richardson J, Hudson S. Ethnicity and cancer outcomes: Behavioral and psychosocial considerations. Psychol Bull. 1998;123(1):47-70. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.123.1.47]
10. McDavid K, Melnik TA, Derderian H. Prostate cancer screening trends of New York state men at least 50 years of age 1994 -1997. Prev Med. 2000;31(3):195-202. [Link] [DOI:10.1006/pmed.2000.0709]
11. Vapiwala N, Miller D, Laventure B, Woodhouse K, Kelly S, Avelis, et al. Stigma, beliefs and perceptions regarding prostate cancer among Black and Latino men and women. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1);758. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-10793-x]
12. Adibe MO, Aluh DO, Isah A, Anosike C. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of prostate cancer among male staff of the University of Nigeria. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(7):1961-6. [Link]
13. Inukai S, Ninomiya K. Cognitive factors relating to mammographic breast cancer screening. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2010;57(9):796-806. [Japanese] [Link]
14. Rahaei Z, Ghofranipour F, Morowatisharifabad MA, Mohammadi E. Determinants of cancer early detection behaviors:application of protection motivation theory. Health Promot Perspect. 2015;5(2):138-46. [Link] [DOI:10.15171/hpp.2015.016]
15. Asadi Z, Abdi N, Miri S, Safari A. Predictors of behavioral intention for pap smear testing based on the theory of protection motivation in women. Health Educ Health Promot. 2022;10(3):427-31. [Link]
16. Milne S, Sheeran P, Orbell SH. Prediction and intervention in health- related behavior: a meta- analytic review of protection motivation theory. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2000;30(1):106-43. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02308.x]
17. Floyd DL, Prentic- Dunn S, Rogers RW. A meta- analysis of research on protection motivation theory. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2000;30(2):407-29. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02323.x]
18. Makado E, Makado RK, Rusere MT. An assessment of knowledge of and attitudes towards prostate cancer screening among men aged 40 to 60 years at Chitungwiza Central Hospital in Zimbabwe. Int J Hum Soc Stud. 2015;3(4):45-55. [Link]
19. Tasian GE, Cooperberg MR, Cowan JE, Keyashian K, Greene KL, Daniels NA, et al. Prostate specific antigen screening for prostate cancer: knowledge of, attitudes towards, and utilization among primary care physicians. Urol Oncol. 2012;30(2):155-60. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.12.019]
20. Abuadas MH, Petro-Nustas W, Albikawi ZF. Predictors of participation in prostate cancer screening among older men in Jordan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(13):5377-83. [Link] [DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5377]
21. Nderitu P, Van Hemelrijck M, Ashworth M, Mathur R, Hull S, DudekA, et al. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested? BMJ Open. 2016;6(7):e011356. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011356]
22. Morrison BF, Aiken W, Mayhew R, Gordon Y, Reid M. Prostate cancer screening in Jamaica: Results of the largest national screening clinic. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;2016:2606805. [Link] [DOI:10.1155/2016/2606805]
23. Vadaparampil ST, Jacobsen PB, Iryna SKK, Saloup WR, Pow-Sang J. Factors predicting prostate specific antigen testing among first-degree relatives of prostate cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(5):753-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.753.13.5]
24. Muliira JK, Al-Saidi HS, Al-Yahyai AN. Determinants of behavioral intentions to screen for prostate cancer in Omani men. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2017;4(4):348-55. [Link] [DOI:10.4103/apjon.apjon_34_17]
25. Matthew AG, Paradisco C, Currie KL, Finelli A. Examining risk perception among men with family history of prostate cancer. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;85(2):251-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2010.11.020]
26. Zare M, Ghodsbin F, Jahanbin I, Ariafar A, Keshavarzi S, Izadi T. The effect of health belief model-based education on knowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery. 2016;4(1):57-68. [Link]
27. Consedine NS, Morgenstern AH, Kudadjie-Gyamfi E, Magai C, Neugut AI. Prostate cancer screening behavior in men from seven ethnic groups: the fear factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(2):228-37. [Link] [DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0019]
28. Patel K, Kenerson D, Wang H, Brown B, Pinkerton H, Burress M, et al. Factors influencing prostate cancer screening in low-income African Americans in Tennessee. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010;21(1 Suppl):114-26. [Link] [DOI:10.1353/hpu.0.0235]
29. Brown CT, O'Flynn E, Van Der Meulen J, Newman S, Mundy AR, Emberton M. The fear of prostate cancer in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: should symptomatic men be screened? BJU Int. 2003;91(1):30-2. [Link] [DOI:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04013.x]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.