Volume 10, Issue 1 (2022)                   Health Educ Health Promot 2022, 10(1): 183-191 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Osman Ali S, Kamel N, Holmes S, Abdelfatah Arafat A. Effect of Benson's Relaxation Technique on Psychological Distress and Sleep Quality among Elderly. Health Educ Health Promot 2022; 10 (1) :183-191
URL: http://hehp.modares.ac.ir/article-5-58542-en.html
1- Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
2- Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
3- Nursing Researcher-King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
4- Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Abstract:   (1177 Views)
Aims: This study aimed to assess the impact of Benson's Relaxation Technique on psychological distress and sleep quality among older people during COVID 19 pandemic.
Methods: A quasi-experimental research design was used. To achieve the aim of this study, 95 elders were recruited randomly as follows; 50 from the Geriatric social club in Zagazig City, 20 from El-Resala geriatric house in Zagazig City, and 25 from geriatric home in Met Ghamr City. Three tools were utilized for data collection, namely, the Interview questionnaire sheet, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales for measuring depression, anxiety as well as stress, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for measuring sleep quality. By SPSS 20.0 and using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Chi-square test, and Spearman correlation coefficient all data were analyzed.
Findings: More than three-quarters of the participants had chronic diseases. The majority had unsatisfactory knowledge about Benson's Relaxation Technique during the pre-intervention phase. Two-thirds of elders had severe depression levels; slightly less than two-thirds had severe anxiety, and about three-quarters had severe stress in the pre-intervention phase with a statistically significant reduction post-intervention phase. The majority had poor sleep quality (97.9%) in the pre-intervention phase, which decreased in the post-intervention phase to 50.5%.
Conclusion: This study concluded that Benson's Relaxation Technique has a great effect on psychological distress and sleep quality of elderly people. Gero-psychiatric nurses should encourage elderly people to apply BRT to the enhancement of their psychological well-being.
Full-Text [PDF 511 kb]   (850 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (364 Views)  
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Health Communication
Received: 2022/01/9 | Accepted: 2022/04/1 | Published: 2022/04/10
* Corresponding Author Address: Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt (osmanalisa1122@gmail.com)

1. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 1]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019. [Link]
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html. [Link]
3. Hwang J, Ryu HS, Kim HA, Hyun M, Lee JY, Yi HA. Prognostic factors of COVID-19 infection in elderly patients: a multicenter study. J Clin Med. 2020;9(12):3932. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/jcm9123932]
4. Levin AT, Hanage WP, Owusu-Boaitey N, Cochran KB, Walsh SP, Meyerowitz-Katz G. Assessing the age specificity of infection fatality rates for COVID-19: systematic review, meta-analysis, and public policy implications. Eur J Epidemiol. 2020;35(12):1123-38. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s10654-020-00698-1]
5. Al-Zahrani J. SARS-CoV-2 associated COVID-19 in geriatric population: A brief narrative review. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021;28(1):738-43. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.001]
6. Khademi F, Moayedi S, Golitaleb M, Karbalaie N. The COVID‐19 pandemic and death anxiety in the elderly. Int J Men Health Nurs. 2020 Dec. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/inm.12824]
7. Couture M, Larivière N, Lefrançois R. Psychological distress in older adults with low functional independence: A multidimensional perspective. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2005;41(1):101-11. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2004.12.004]
8. Santini ZI, Jose PE, Cornwell EY, Koyanagi A, Nielsen L, Hinrichsen C, et al. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among older Americans (NSHAP): a longitudinal mediation analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(1):e62-70. [LinkLink] [DOI:10.1016/S2468-2667(19)30230-0]
9. Riedel‐Heller SG, Busse A, Angermeyer MC. The state of mental health in old‐age across the 'old'European :union:-a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scand. 2006;113(5):388-401. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00632.x]
10. Henning-Smith C. Quality of life and psychological distress among older adults: the role of living arrangements. J Appl Gerontol. 2016;35(1):39-61. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0733464814530805]
11. Kamal M, Herawati T. The effect of sleep hygiene and relaxation Benson on improving the quality of sleep among health failure patients: A literature review. Int J Nurs Health Serv. 2019;2:101-7. [Link] [DOI:10.35654/ijnhs.v2i1.69]
12. Tranah GJ, Stone KL, Ancoli-Israel S. Circadian rhythms in older adults. In: Kryger MH, Roth T and Dement WC, editors. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 6th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc; 2017. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-323-24288-2.00154-9]
13. Taylor DJ, Lichstein KL, Durrence HH, Reidel BW, Bush AJ. Epidemiology of insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Sleep. 2005;28(11):1457-64. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/sleep/28.11.1457]
14. Zargarani F, Kamkar M, Maghsoudlou A. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation technique on the quality of sleep and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Nurs Midwifery J. 2018;15(12):911-20. [Persian] [Link]
15. Benson H, Beary JF, Carol MP. The relaxation response. Psychiatry. 1974;37(1):37-46. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/00332747.1974.11023785]
16. Elsayed EB, Radwan EH, Elashri NI, El-Gilany H. The effect of Benson's relaxation technique on anxiety, depression and sleep quality of elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis. Int J Nurs Didactics. 2019;9:23-31. [Link] [DOI:10.15520/ijnd.v9i02.2443]
17. Marengoni A, Zucchelli A, Vetrano DL, Armellini A, Botteri E, Nicosia F, et al. Beyond chronological age: Frailty and multimorbidity predict in-hospital mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2021;76(3):e38-45. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/gerona/glaa291]
18. Turner G, Clegg A. Best practice guidelines for the management of frailty: a British Geriatrics Society, Age UK and Royal College of General Practitioners report. Age Ageing. 2014;43(6):744-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afu138]
19. Smeltzer, S., Bare, B., Hinkle, J, Cheever, K. Biophysical and psychological concepts in nursing practice, Introduced by Herbert Benson Brunner & Suddarths text book of medical surgical nursing. Philadelphia: Woltres; 2010. [Link]
20. Adam D, Ramli A, Shahar S. Effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention on reducing anxiety and depression and improving quality of life among the cognitively impaired elderly. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2016;16(1):e47-53. [Link] [DOI:10.18295/squmj.2016.16.01.009]
21. Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33(3):335-43. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U]
22. Moussa MT, Lovibond P, Laube R, Megahead HA. Psychometric properties of an arabic version of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS). Rese Soc Work Pract. 2017;27(3):375-86. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/1049731516662916]
23. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989;28(2):193-213. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4]
24. Suleiman K, Al-Hadid L, Duhni A. Psychometric testing of the Arabic version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (A-PSQI) among coronary artery disease patients in Jordan. J Nat Sci Res. 2012;2(8):15-20. [Link]
25. Dangol M, Shrestha S, Rai Koirala SK. Insomnia and its associated factors among older people of selected ward of Banepa municipality, Nepal. Nurs Open. 2020;7(1):355-63. [Link] [DOI:10.1002/nop2.396]
26. Gulia KK, Kumar VM. Sleep disorders in the elderly: a growing challenge. Psychogeriatrics. 2018;18(3):155-65. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/psyg.12319]
27. Cybulski M, Cybulski L, Krajewska-Kulak E, Orzechowska M, Cwalina U, Kowalczuk K. Sleep disorders among educationally active elderly people in Bialystok, Poland: A cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatric. 2019;19:225. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12877-019-1248-2]
28. Reaves C. Benson's relaxation response: psychological and physiological responses among patients with COPD [Dissertation]. Unknown Publisher; 2019. [Link]
29. Habibollahpour M, Ranjkesh F, Motalebi SA, Mohammadi F. The Impact of Benson's relaxation technique on the quality of sleep in the elderly. Topic Geriatric Rehabil. 2019;35(1):88-94. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/TGR.0000000000000204]
30. Amini E, Goudarzi I, Masoudi R, Ahmadi A, Momeni A. Effect of progressive muscle relaxation and aerobic exercise on anxiety, sleep quality, and fatigue in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Int J Pharmaceut Clin Res. 2016;8(12):1634-9. [Persian] [Link]
31. Safi SZ. A fresh look at the potential mechanisms of progressive muscle relaxation therapy on depression in female patients with multiple sclerosis. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2015;9(1):e340. [Link] [DOI:10.17795/ijpbs340]
32. Barati S, Sarjuei Z. The effects of Benson & Jacobson combined relaxation techniques on the elderly's depression & life quality. J Chem Pharmaceut Res. 2016;8(6):100-3. [Link]
33. Reig-Ferrer A, Ferrer-Cascales R, Santos-Ruiz A, Campos-Ferrer A, Prieto-Seva A, Velasco-Ruiz I, et al. A relaxation technique enhances psychological well-being and immune parameters in elderly people from a nursing home: a randomized controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:311. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-311]
34. Ahmed NA, Masry SE. Effect of Benson's relaxation technique on night pain and sleep quality among adults and elderly patients undergoing joints replacement surgery. Int J Nurs Didactics. 2017;7:1-8. [Link] [DOI:10.15520/ijnd.2017.vol7.iss4.205.01-08]
35. Byomi SS, Sharkaway SA. The impact of nursing intervention about sleep disturbance among elderly patient. J Am Sci. 2013;9(5):193-202. [Link]
36. Abd Allah ES, Abdel-Aziz HR, Ali SA, El-Seoud AR. Cognitive behavioral intervention to improve sleep quality in older adults. IOSR J Nursing and Health Science. 2016. [Link]
37. Bloom HG, Ahmed I, Alessi CA, Ancoli‐Israel S, Buysse DJ, Kryger MH, et al. Evidence‐based recommendations for the assessment and management of sleep disorders in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(5):761-89. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02220.x]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.