Volume 10, Issue 1 (2022)                   Health Educ Health Promot 2022, 10(1): 115-122 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ravari A, Hoseinzadeh F, Mirzaei T, Sayadi A, Hassanshahi E. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Tai Chi Exercise on the Fear of Falling: a Clinical Trial Study. Health Educ Health Promot 2022; 10 (1) :115-122
URL: http://hehp.modares.ac.ir/article-5-54010-en.html
1- Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
2- “Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery”, and “Student Research Committee”, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
3- Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran , t.mirzaei@rums.ac.ir
4- “Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery”, and “Social Determinants of Health Research Center”, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
5- Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
Abstract:   (491 Views)
Aims: Fear of falling in the elderly is a significant health problem. This study was aimed to compare the two CBT and Tai Chi exercise methods to reduce the fear of falling among retirees.
Materials & Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted from December 2018 to October 2019 on elderly retirees who were referred to the Retirees Association at Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Kerman, Iran. A number of 120 elderly people were randomly assigned to Tai Chi, CBT, and control groups (40 retirees/group). The intervention in CBT groups consisted of 16 sessions of 60 to 70 minutes for eight weeks and in Tai Chi groups consisted of 16 sessions of 45 to 60 minutes for eight weeks. The participants in the control group received training on the problems of old age. The self-report scale assessed fear of falling before, one, and two months after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 18 using ANOVA and Chi-square tests.
Findings: Before and in the first month after intervention, there was no significant difference between the three groups regarding the total score of fear of falling and its components (p<0.05). In the second month, the total score of fear of falling in the Tai Chi group was 8.95±1.63, the CBT group was 8.6±1.63, and the control group was 7.63±1.36, and there was no significant difference (p=0.147). Also, the most significant difference in the total fear of falling score was between the Tai Chi and the control groups.
Conclusion: Tai Chi and CBT interventions are effective in the fear of falling in the elderly.

 
Full-Text [PDF 550 kb]   (202 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (31 Views)  
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Health Promotion Approaches
Received: 2021/07/11 | Accepted: 2021/09/30 | Published: 2022/01/24
* Corresponding Author Address: Dept. of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Parastar Street, Motahhari Blvd, Rafsanjan, Iran Postal code: 7718796755

References
1. Ravari A, Mirzaei T, Salamizadeh A, Majdabadi HA. Effect of the spiritual care training on anxiety reduction in home caregivers of the elderly with alzheimer disease. KOOMESH. 2017;19(2):467-74. [Persian] [Link]
2. Mohammadi Shahrokhi V, Ravari A, Mirzaei T, Zare-Bidaki M, Asadikaram G, Kazemi Arababadi M. IL-17A and IL-23: plausible risk factors to induce age-associated inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Immunol Invest. 2018;47(8):812-22. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/08820139.2018.1504300]
3. Alsaif AA, Ahmed Alsenany S. Balance and prevention of fall among elderly. MOJ Gerontol Ger. 2018;3(1):65-9. [Link] [DOI:10.15406/mojgg.2018.03.00087]
4. Lopes K, Costa D, Santos L, Castro D, Bastone A. Prevalence of fear of falling among a population of older adults and its correlation with mobility, dynamic balance, risk and History of falls. Braz J Physic Ther. 2009;13(3):223-9. [Link]
5. Tomita Y, Arima K, Tsujimoto R, Kawashiri SY, Nishimura T, Mizukami S, et al. Prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults. Med. 2018;97(4):e9721. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009721]
6. Mane AB, Sanjana T, Patil PR, Sriniwas T. Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling among elderly population in urban area of Karnataka, India. J Midlife Health. 2014;5(3):150-5. [Link] [DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.141224]
7. Hadjistavropoulos T, Delbaere K, Fitzgerald TD. Reconceptualizing the role of fear of falling and balance confidence in fall risk. J Aging Health. 2011;23(1):3-23. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0898264310378039]
8. Schone D, Freiberger E, Sieber CC. Influence of skeletal muscles on the risk of falling in old age. Internist (Berl). 2017;58(4):359-70. [German] [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00108-017-0212-5]
9. Rahimi A, Balouchi R, Eslami R, Shahrokhi M. The relationship between back extensor muscle strength with dynamic balance and fear of falling in elderly people. J Practi Stud Biosci Sport. 2016;4(7):114-24. [Persian] [Link]
10. Yousefy A, KhayamNekouei Z. Basis of cognitive-behavioral trainings and its applications in recovery of chronic diseases. Iranian J Med Educ. 2011;10(5):792-800. [Persian] [Link]
11. Ehde DM, Dillworth TM, Turner JA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals with chronic pain: efficacy, innovations, and directions for research. Am Psychol. 2014;69(2):153-66. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/a0035747]
12. Parry SW, Bamford C, Deary V, Finch TL, Gray J, MacDonald C, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study. Health Technol Assess. 2016;20(56):1-206. [Link] [DOI:10.3310/hta20560]
13. Ravari A, Mirzaei T, Bahremand R, Raeisi M, Kamiab Z. The effect of pilates exercise on the happiness and depression of elderly women: A clinical trial study. J Sports Med Physic Fitness. 2021;61(1):131-9. [Link] [DOI:10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10730-8]
14. Kumar A, Delbaere K, Zijlstra GAR, Carpenter H, Iliffe S, Masud T, et al. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2016;45(3):345-52. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/ageing/afw036]
15. Gusi N, Adsuar JC, Corzo H, del Pozo-Cruz B, Olivares PR, Parraca JA. Balance training reduces fear of falling and improves dynamic balance and isometric strength in institutionalised older people: a randomised trial. J Physiother. 2012;58(2):97-104. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S1836-9553(12)70089-9]
16. Solloway MR, Taylor SL, Shekelle PG, Miake-Lye IM, Beroes JM, Shanman RM, et al. An evidence map of the effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes. Syst Rev. 2016;5(1):126. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s13643-016-0300-y]
17. Sungkarat S, Boripuntakul S, Chattipakorn N, Watcharasaksilp K, Lord SR. Effects of Tai Chi on cognition and fall risk in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(4):721-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/jgs.14594]
18. You T, Ogawa EF, Thapa S, Cai Y, Zhang H, Nagae S, et al. Tai Chi for older adults with chronic multisite pain: a randomized controlled pilot study. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018;30(11):1335-43. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s40520-018-0922-0]
19. Jahnke R, Larkey L, Rogers C, Etnier J, Lin F. A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. Am J Health Promot. 2010;24(6):e1-e25. [Link] [DOI:10.4278/ajhp.081013-LIT-248]
20. Zou L, Sasaki JE, Wei GX, Huang T, Yeung AS, Barbosa Neto O, et al. Effects of mind-body exercises (Tai Chi/Yoga) on heart rate variability parameters and perceived stress: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Med. 2018;7(11):404. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/jcm7110404]
21. Nguyen MH, Kruse A. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:185-90. [Link] [DOI:10.2147/CIA.S32600]
22. Sun Z, Chen H, Berger MR, Zhang L, Guo H, Huang Y. Effects of tai chi exercise on bone health in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2016;27(10):2901-11. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s00198-016-3626-3]
23. Huang TT, Yang LH, Liu CY. Reducing the fear of falling among community-dwelling elderly adults through cognitive-behavioural strategies and intense Tai Chi exercise: A randomized controlled trial. J Adv Nurs. 2011;67(5):961-71. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05553.x]
24. Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, Eckstrom E, Stock R, Galver J, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(6):511-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1107911]
25. Hosseini L, Kargozar E, Sharifi F, Negarandeh R, Memari AH, Navab E. Tai Chi Chuan can improve balance and reduce fear of falling in community dwelling older adults: a randomized control trial. J Exerc Rehabil. 2018;14(6):1024-31. [Link] [DOI:10.12965/jer.1836488.244]
26. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972;1(4):233-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/ageing/1.4.233]
27. Jitapunkul S, Pillay I, Ebrahim S. The abbreviated mental test: its use and validity. Age Ageing. 1991;20(5):332-6. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/ageing/20.5.332]
28. Gomez de Caso JA, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Claveria LE, Coria F. Value of Hodkinson's test for detecting dementia and mild cognitive impairment in epidemiological surveys. Neuroepidemiology. 1994;13(1-2):64-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1159/000110360]
29. Bakhtiyari F, Foroughan M, Fakhrzadeh H, Nazari N, Najafi B, Alizadeh M, et al. Validation of the persian version of abbreviated mental test (AMT) in elderly residents of kahrizak charity foundation. Iranian J Diabetes Metab. 2014;13(6):487-94. [Link]
30. Lachman ME, Howland J, Tennstedt S, Jette A, Assmann S, Peterson EW. Fear of falling and activity restriction: the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly (SAFE). J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1998;53(1):P43-50. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/geronb/53B.1.P43]
31. Zarei M, Lajevardi L, Zarei MA, Mollazadeh E. Translation, content validity, and internal consistency of the persian version of the survey of activities and fear of falling in the elderly with parkinson's disease. Sci J Rehabil Med. 2017;6(1):93-103. [Persian] [Link]
32. Hee J. The effects of body mechanics training on fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults [dissertation]. Tacoma: University of Puget Sound; 2011. [Link]
33. Pighills AC, Torgerson DJ, Sheldon TA, Drummond AE, Bland JM. Environmental assessment and Modification to prevent falls in older people. J compilation, J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(1):26-33. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03221.x]
34. Torkaman Gholami J, Mohamadi Shahbolaghi F, Norouzi K, Reza soltani P. The relationship between fear of falling and activity limitations among seniors of Ghaem Shahr city in 2013. Iranian J Rehabil Res Nurs. 2015;2(1):45-52. [Persian] [Link]
35. Ghezeljeh TN, Yekta ZP, Mehran A, Oori MJ. Effect of a multidimensional fall prevention program on incidence of falling and quality of life among elderly. HAYAT. 2014;20(2). [Link]
36. Liu Y, Tsui C. A randomized trial comparing Tai Chi with and without cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) to reduce fear of falling in community-dwelling elderly people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014;59(2):317-25. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2014.05.008]
37. Dorresteijn TAC, Rixt Zijlstra GA, Ambergen AW, Delbaere K, Vlaeyen JWS, Kempen GIJM. Effectiveness of a home-based cognitive behavioral program to manage concerns about falls in community-dwelling, frail older people: results of a randomized controlled trial BMC Geriatr. 2016;16:2. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12877-016-0278-2]
38. Mortazavi H, Tabatabaeichehr M, Golestani A, Armat MR, Yousefi MR. The effect of Tai Chi exercise on the risk and fear of falling in older adults: a randomized clinical trial. Mater Sociomed. 2018;30(1):38-42. [Link] [DOI:10.5455/msm.2018.30.38-42]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.