Volume 9, Issue 2 (2021)                   Health Educ Health Promot 2021, 9(2): 153-164 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Molaeinezhad M, Scheidt C, Afshar H, Jahanfar S, Sohran F, Salehi M et al . Bodily Map of Emotions in Iranian People. Health Educ Health Promot. 2021; 9 (2) :153-164
URL: http://hehp.modares.ac.ir/article-5-47532-en.html
1- Behavioral Sciences Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2- Department of Psychosomatic, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
3- “Psychosomatic Research Center” and “Departments of Psychiatry, School of Medicine”, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4- School of Public health, College of Health Professionals, Central University of Michigan, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, United States of America
5- Department of Midwifery, Nursing and Midwifery School, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan, Iran
6- Danesh-e Tandorosti Institute, Isfahan, Iran , drfgoli@gmail.com
Abstract:   (183 Views)
Aims: Experienced bodily sensation with basic emotions seems to be a universal phenomenon, but
cross-cultural differences are expected. This study was designed to determine the topographic map of changes across six basic emotions and anxiety in a sample of Iranian people and to compare their perception of emotion-related bodily changes by sex.
Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 220 Iranians aged 16-55 years. The Persian pencil and paper version of the emBODY application was used and validated during the study. The results were analyzed by SPSS 20 software using generalized linear models to determine the relationship between gender and emotion sensation in 5 main body areas and three main facial parts.
Findings: Anxiety was the most common reported basic emotion, and anger, fear, sadness, joy, surprise, and disgust, respectively, were identified basic emotions in both sexes. GLMs were significant (p<0.05) for bodily sensation changes in the head and neck, upper body, upper and lower limbs, and all three main facial parts. Results also showed a significant gender difference in lower limbs (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results suggested the consistency of distinct emotion-triggered bodily sensation maps of Iranians with universal patterns.
Full-Text [PDF 1055 kb]   (24 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (4 Views)  
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Social Health
Received: 2020/11/11 | Accepted: 2021/02/26 | Published: 2021/07/11
* Corresponding Author Address: Danesh-e Tandorosti Institute, Isfahan, Iran

1. Ekman P. An argument for basic emotions. Cogn Emot. 1992;6(3-4):169-200. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/02699939208411068]
2. Kassam KS, Markey AR, Cherkassky VL, Loewenstein G, Just MA. Identifying emotions on the basis of neural activation. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):66032. [Link] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066032] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Nummenmaa L, Glerean E, Hari R, Hietanen JK. Bodily maps of emotions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2014;111(2):646-51. [Link] [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1321664111] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Damasio A, Carvalho GB. The nature of feelings: Evolutionary and neurobiological origins. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14(2):143-52. [Link] [DOI:10.1038/nrn3403] [PMID]
5. Hietanen JK, Glerean E, Hari R, Nummenmaa L. Bodily maps of emotions across child development. Dev Sci. 2016;19(6):1111-8. doi:10.1111/desc.12389 [Link] [DOI:10.1111/desc.12389] [PMID]
6. Philippot P, Rime B. The perception of bodily sensations during emotion: A cross-cultural perspective. Pol Psychol Bull. 1997;28(2):175-88. [Link]
7. Matsumoto D, Kudoh T, Scherer K, Wallbott H. Antecedents of and reactions to emotions in the United States and Japan. J Cross Cult Psychol. 1988;19(3):267-86. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0022022188193001]
8. Matsumoto D, Ekman P. American-Japanese cultural differences in intensity ratings of facial expressions of emotion. Motiv Emot. 1989;13(2):143-57. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/BF00992959]
9. Dzokoto V. Different ways of feeling: Emotion and somatic awareness in Ghanaians and Euro-Americans. J Soc Evolut Cult Psychol. 2010;4(2):68-78. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/h0099299]
10. Breugelmans SM, Ambadar Z, Vaca JB, Poortinga YH, Setiadi B, Widiyanto P, et al. Body sensations associated with emotions in Raramuri Indians, rural Javanese, and three student samples. Emotion. 2005;5(2):166-74. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/1528-3542.5.2.166] [PMID]
11. Kitayama S, Markus HR. The pursuit of happiness and the realization of sympathy: Cultural patterns of self, social relations, and well-being. In: Diener E, Suh EM. Culture and subjective well-being. Cambridge: The MIT Press; 2000. [Link]
12. Kitayama S, Markus HR, Kurokawa M. Culture, emotion, and well-being: Good feelings in Japan and the United States. Cogn Emot. 2000;14(1):93-124. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/026999300379003]
13. Tsai JL, Knutson B, Rung HH. Cultural variation in affect valuation. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;90(2):288-307. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.90.2.288] [PMID]
14. Good BJ. The heart of what's the matter: The semantics of illness in Iran. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1977;1(1):25-58. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/BF00114809] [PMID]
15. Malekian A, Ahamadzadeh G, Afshar H. Cultural issues in anxiety disorders: Some particularities of the Iranian culture. Eur Psychiatry. 2013;28(1):1. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S0924-9338(13)75943-1]
16. Novin S, Banerjee R, Dadkhah A, Rieffe C. Self-reported use of emotional display rules in the Netherlands and Iran: Evidence for sociocultural influence. Soc Dev. 2009;18(2):397-411. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00485.x]
17. Dadkhah A, Shirinbayan P. Emotion regulation characteristics development in Iranian primary school pupils. Iran Rehabil J. 2014;12(4):17-21. [Persian] [Link]
18. Beeman WO. Emotion and sincerity in Persian discourse: Accomplishing the representation of inner states. Int J Soc Lang. 2001;148:31-57. [Link] [DOI:10.1515/ijsl.2001.013]
19. Pliskin KL. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture. West J Med. 1992;157(3):295-300 [Link]
20. Surdykowska S. Martyrdom and ecstasy: Emotion training in Iranian culture. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2012. [Link]
21. Surdykowska S. The idea of sadness: The richness of Persian experiences and expressions. Rocz Orient. 2014;2:68-80. [Link]
22. Pirzad Mashak S, Pazhakh A, Hayati A. A comparative study on basic emotion conceptual metaphors in English and Persian literary texts. Int Educ Stud. 2012;5(1):200-7. [Link] [DOI:10.5539/ies.v5n1p200]
23. Shahshahani S. Body as a means of non-verbal communication in Iran. Int J Mod Anthropol. 2008;1:65-81. [Link]
24. Sharifian F, Culture, body and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; 2008. [Link] [DOI:10.1515/9783110199109]
25. Imani A, Rafie A, Amoozadeh M. A socio-constructal analysis of "Del" (heart) in Persian language in Linguistic literature. Ling Res J. 2014;9(2):33-42. [Persian] [Link]
26. Riegel M, Moslehi A, Michalowski JM, Zurawski L, Horvat M, Wypych M, et al. Nencki affective picture system: Cross-cultural study in Europe and Iran. Front Psychol. 2017;8:274. [Link] [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00274] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Garcia-Magarino I, Chittaro L, Plaza I. Bodily sensation maps: Exploring a new direction for detecting emotions from user self-reported data. Int J Hum Comput Stud. 2018;113:32-47. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2018.01.010]
28. Pennebaker JW, Roberts TA. Toward a his and hers theory of emotion: Gender differences in visceral perception. J Soc Clin Psychol. 1992;11(3):199-212. [Link] [DOI:10.1521/jscp.1992.11.3.199]
29. Grabauskaite A, Baranauskas M, Griskova-Bulanova I. Interoception and gender: What aspects should we pay attention to. Conscious Cogn. 2017;48:129-37. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2016.11.002] [PMID]
30. Tabachnik BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon; 2001. [Link]
31. Brummett CM, Bakshi RR, Goesling J, Leung D, Moser SE, Zollars JW, et al. Preliminary validation of the Michigan body map. Pain. 2016;157(6):1205-12. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000506] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Ekman P, Friesen WV, Tomkins SS. Facial affect scoring technique: A first validity study. Semiotica. 1971;3(1):1. [Link] [DOI:10.1515/semi.1971.3.1.37]
33. Taylor A. Using the GLM procedure in SPSS. Sydney: Macquarie University; 2011. [Link]
34. Mehling WE, Acree M, Stewart A, Silas J, Jones A. The multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness, version 2 (MAIA-2). PLoS One. 2018;13(12):0208034. [Link] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0208034] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Zargar F, Asgharnejad Farid AA, Atef-Vahid MK, Afshar H, Maroofi M, Omranifard V. Effect of acceptance-based behavior therapy on severity of symptoms, worry and quality of life in women with generalized anxiety disorder. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2012;6(2):23-32. [Link]
36. Skladankowa M. Iran-paradygmaty wyobrazni (II). Acta Asiat Varsoviensia. 1993;7:38-9. [Link]
37. Bramsen I, Poder P. Emotional dynamics in conflict and conflict transformation. Berlin: Berghof Foundation; 2018. [Link]
38. Hosseini SH, Mokhberi V, Ali Mohammadpour R, Mehrabianfard M, Bali Lashak N. Anger expression and suppression among patients with essential hypertension. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2011;15(3):214-8. [Link] [DOI:10.3109/13651501.2011.572168] [PMID]
39. Harre R. The social construction of emotions. Oxford: Blackwell; 1989. [Link]
40. Baghaei Lake M, Khalatbari J. Effectiveness of anger management program training on control and self-regulation of anger and impulsivity of mothers of male students of primary schools of Rasht. J Holist Nurs Midwifery. 2010;20(63):1-9. [Persian] [Link]
41. Shokouhi Yekta M, Zamani N, Parand A, Akbari Zardkhaneh S. The effectiveness of anger management training on parents' anger expression and control. Dev Psychol. 2011;7(26):137-46. [Persian] [Link]
42. Khodayari Fard M, Lavasani MG, Akbari Zardkhane Liaghat S. Standardization of Spielberger's State-trait anger expression inventory II for Iranian students. Arch Rehabil. 2010;11(1):47-56. [Persian] [Link]
43. Asghari Moghadam MA, Hakimi Rad E, Rezazadeh T. Preliminary validation of the revised version of the anger expression trait questionnaire in the student population. Daneshvar Behav. 2008;15(28):21-34. [Persian] [Link]
44. Moheba N, Ram U. Cross-cultural study of stress and anger. Proced Soc Behav Sci. 2010;5:1765-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.361]
45. Shahsavarani AM, Noohi S. Explaining the bases and fundamentals of anger: A literature review. Int J Med Rev. 2014;1(4):143-9. [Link]
46. Crawford NC. The passion of world politics: Propositions on emotion and emotional relationships. Int Secur. 2000;24(4):116-56. [Link] [DOI:10.1162/016228800560327]
47. Brewer JD. Peace processes: A sociological approach. Hoboken: Wiley; 2010. [Link]
48. Brudholm T. Resentment's virtue: Jean Amery and the refusal to forgive. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 2009. [Link]
49. Chakravarti S. Sing the rage: Listening to anger after mass violence. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; 2014. [Link] [DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226120041.001.0001]
50. Jack RE, Garrod OGB, Yu H, Caldara R, Schyns PG. Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2012;109(19):7241-4. [Link] [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1200155109] [PMID] [PMCID]
51. Shams G, Janani L, Milosevic I, Foroughi E. Disgust emotion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in an Iranian clinical sample. Psychology. 2015;6(13):1721-31. [Link] [DOI:10.4236/psych.2015.613168]
52. Overton PG, Powell PA, Simpson J. The revolting self: Perspectives on the psychological and clinical implications of self-directed disgust. Abingdon: Routledge; 2015. [Link]
53. Ots T. The angry liver, the anxious heart, and the melancholy spleen: The phenomenology of perceptions in Chinese culture. Cult Med Psychiatry. 1990;14(1):21-58. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/BF00046703] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author