Volume 8, Issue 3 (2020)                   Health Educ Health Promot 2020, 8(3): 115-124 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Barzegar M, Talepasand S, Rahimian Boogar E. Effectiveness of Computer-Based Cognitive Training, Nutritional Supplementations Intervention and Both Combined on the Improvement of Attention, Working Memory, and Behavioral Symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Health Educ Health Promot 2020; 8 (3) :115-124
URL: http://hehp.modares.ac.ir/article-5-44388-en.html
1- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
2- Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran , stalepasand@semnan.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2121 Views)
Aims: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of various interventions on the improvement of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Materials & Methods: Participants were 52 attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children who were assigned to four experimental and control groups of 13. Data were gathered with strengths and difficulties questionnaire, n-back test, and continuous performance test.
Findings: The findings showed that the effect of therapeutic interventions on behavioral symptoms, attention, and working memory was significant. The maximum useful size was observed to be 0.66 on reaction speed, 0.57 on the correct response, and then 0.52 on Omission error. The sustainability of interventions in the next stage was significant and different.
Conclusion: The results indicate that most of the components of attention, working memory, and behavioral symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have been improved in all experimental groups.
Full-Text [PDF 924 kb]   (1072 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Health Education and Health Behavior
Received: 2020/07/12 | Accepted: 2020/08/18 | Published: 2020/09/20
* Corresponding Author Address: Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Semnan University, Mahdi Shahr, Semnan, Iran Postal code: 3564111556

1. American psychiatric association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Philadelphia: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. [Link] [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
2. Polanczyk G, De Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: A systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatr. 2007;164(6):942-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1176/ajp.2007.164.6.942]
3. Pineda DA, Lopera F, Palacio JD, Ramirez D, Henao GC. Prevalence estimations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential diagnoses and comorbidities in a Colombian sample. Int J Neurosci. 2003;113(1):49-71. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/00207450390161921]
4. Gimpel G, Kuhn BR. Maternal report of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschool children. Child Care Health Dev. 2000;26(3):163-76. [Link] [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2214.2000.00126.x]
5. Wolraich ML, Greenhill LL, Pelham W, Swanson J, Wilens T, Palumbo D, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of OROS methylphenidate once a day in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2001;108(4):883-92. [Link] [DOI:10.1542/peds.108.4.883]
6. Fontana RDS, Vasconcelos M, Werner J, Goes F, Liberal EF. ADHD prevalence in four Brazilian plublic schools. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65(1):134-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1590/S0004-282X2007000100027]
7. Ardalan G, Farhoud D, Shah Mohammadi D. Hyperactivity, attention and concentration deficit in preschool children. Iran J Pediatr. 2002;12(4):53-7. [Persian] [Link]
8. Akhavan Karbasi S, Golestan M, Fallah R, Sadr Bafghi M. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 6 year olds of Yazd city. J SSU. 2008;15(4):29-34. [Persian] [Link]
9. Werner E, Bierman JM, French FE, Simonian K, Connor A, Smith RS, et al. Reproductive and environmental casualties: A report on the 10-year follow-up of the children of the Kauai pregnancy study. Pediatrics. 1968;42(1):112-27. [Link]
10. Tavakkolizadeh J, Bolhari J, Mehryar AH, Dezhkam M. Epidemiology of attention deficit and disruptive behaviour disorders in elementary school children of Gonabad town, north east Iran (1996-1997). Iran J Psychiatr Clin Psychol. 1997;3(1-2):40-52. [Persian] [Link]
11. Lambek R, Tannock R, Dalsgaard S, Trillingsgaard A, Damm D, Thomsen PH. Executive dysfunction in school-age children with ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2011;15(8):646-55. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/1087054710370935]
12. Diamond A. Executive functions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2013;64:135-68. [Link] [DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750]
13. Gray SA, Chaban P, Martinussen R, Goldberg R, Gotlieb H, Kronitz R, et al. Effects of a computerized working memory training program on working memory, attention, and academics in adolescents with severe LD and comorbid ADHD: A randomized controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatr. 2012;53(12):1277-84. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02592.x]
14. Baddeley A. Working memory: theories, models, and controversies. Annu Rev Psychol. 2012;63:1-29. [Link] [DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100422]
15. Sonuga-Barke EJS, Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, et al. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. Am J Psychiatr. 2013;170(3):275-89. [Link] [DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12070991]
16. Ferreira MLB. Cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2010;68(4):632-41. [Link] [DOI:10.1590/S0004-282X2010000400029]
17. Sohlberg MM, Mateer CA. Improving attention and managing attentional problems. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;931(1):359-75. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05790.x]
18. Johnson MH, Gliga T, Jones E, Charman T. Annual research review: Infant development, autism, and ADHD-early pathways to emerging disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatr. 2015;56(3):228-47. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12328]
19. Fitzgerald M, Bellgrove M, Gill M. Handbook of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2007. [Link]
20. Tamm L, Epstein JN, Peugh JL, Nakonezny PA, Hughes CW. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2013;4:16-28. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2012.11.004]
21. Rostaman H, Talepasand S, Nazifi M. The effect of executive function training on executive performance and behavioral symptoms of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychol 2013;5(1):93-106. [Persian] [Link]
22. Green CS, Bavelier D. Effect of action video games on the spatial distribution of visuospatial attention. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2006;32(6):1465-78. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/0096-1523.32.6.1465]
23. Abdi A, Arabani DA, Hatami J, Parand A. The effect of cognitive computer games on working memory, attention and cognitive flexibility in students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Except Child. 2014;14(1):19-33. [Persian] [Link]
24. Steiner NJ, Sheldrick RC, Gotthelf D, Perrin EC. Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary trial. Clin Pediatr. 2011;50(7):615-22. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0009922810397887]
25. Olesen PJ, Westerberg H, Klingberg T. Increased prefrontal and parietal activity after training of working memory. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7(1):75-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1038/nn1165]
26. Saha P, Chakraborty P, Mukhopadhyay P, Bandhopadhyay D, Ghosh S. Computer-based attention training for treating a child with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An adjunct to pharmacotherapy-a case report. J Pharm Res. 2015;9(11):612-7. [Link]
27. Alloway TP, Bibile V, Lau G. Computerized working memory training: Can it lead to gains in cognitive skills in students?. Comput Hum Behav. 2013;29(3):632-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2012.10.023]
28. Ramakrishnan U, Imhoff-Kunsch B, DiGirolamo AM. Role of docosahexaenoic acid in maternal and child mental health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(3):958-62. [Link] [DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26692F]
29. Riby L, Smith M, Foster J. Nutrition and mental performance: A lifespan perspective. London: Red Globe Press; 2012. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/978-1-137-00689-9]
30. Antalis CJ, Stevens LJ, Campbell M, Pazdro R, Ericson K, Burgess JR. Omega-3 fatty acid status in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins, Leukot Essent Fat Acids. 2006;75(4-5):299-308. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2006.07.004]
31. Kaplan RJ, Greenwood CE, Winocur G, Wolever TMS. Dietary protein, carbohydrate, and fat enhance memory performance in the healthy elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(5):687-93. [Link] [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/74.5.687]
32. Nyaradi A, Li J, Hickling S, Foster J, Oddy WH. The role of nutrition in children's neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:97. [Link] [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00097]
33. Millichap JG, Yee MM. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):330-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1542/peds.2011-2199]
34. Khushabi K, Ghadiri F, Jazayeri A. Parent management training group fits Iranian culture in reducingssymptoms of attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity comparison with pharmaco therapy. Fam Res. 2006;2(7):269-83. [Persian] [Link]
35. Sandford J, Browne R. Captain's log cognitive system. Richmond: Brain Train. 1988. [Link]
36. Fine AH, Kotkin RA. Therapist's guide to learning and attention disorders. Cambridge: Academic Press; 2003. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/B978-012256430-7/50010-7]
37. Hariri M, Djazayery A, Djalali M, Saedisomeolia A, Rahimi A, Abdolahian E. Effect of n-3 supplementation on hyperactivity, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Malays J Nutr. 2012;18(3):329-35. [Link]
38. Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: A double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]. BMC Psychiatr. 2004;4(1):9. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-4-9]
39. Toren P, Eldar S, Sela BA, Wolmer L, Weitz R, Inbar D, et al. Zinc deficiency in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatr. 1996;40(12):1308-10. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(96)00310-1]
40. Bekaroglu M, Aslan Y, Gedik Y, Deger O, Mocan H, Erduran E, et al. Relationships between serum free fatty acids and Zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatr. 1996;37(2):225-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01395.x]
41. Hutton B, Tetzlaff J, Yazdi F, Thielman J, Kanji S, Fergusson D, et al. Comparative effectiveness of monotherapies and combination therapies for patients with hypertension: Protocol for a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Syst Rev. 2013;2:44. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/2046-4053-2-44]
42. Farhud D, Shalileh M. Relation between omega 3 fatty acid, Iron, Zinc and treatment of ADHD. Zahedan J Res Med Sci. 2014;16(8):1-5. [Persian] [Link]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.